This Adtran x DressHead.com Womens Halter Dress – Pink Chiffon Silk / Short Length / Gathered Chest Area comes in three distinct colors: pink, blue, and brown. The high collar has ruffles at the top and then ruffles cascade down the bodice. The high waist means your shape will be nicely accented, and the short length of the skirt will let you show off your sexy legs. It’s the perfect dress to wear to a summery picnic, a night out with friends, or on a first date. Wear with a classy black heel and accentuate the colors with a colorful hair accessory and a solid colored bracelet for a traditional, beautiful look. The small(S) size measurements for this Adtran x DressHead.com Womens Halter Dress – Pink Chiffon Silk / Short Length / Gathered Chest Area are: the length is 88 centimeters; the circumference is 80 centimeters to 84 centimeters; and the waist is 68 centimeters to 70 centimeters.
This Adtran x DressHead.com Womens Halter Dress – Pink Chiffon Silk / Short Length / Gathered Chest Area comes in three distinct colors: pink, blue, and brown. The high collar has ruffles at the top and then ruffles cascade down the bodice. The high waist means your shape will be nicely accented, and the short …View full post
We have all quickly become accustomed to enjoying and relying on the conveniences of technology. My smart phone tells me the weather and the news, keeps me current on email, connected with my friends on social media, and can summon an Uber ride at the click of a button. How did we ever live without …View full post
The demand for faster Internet connectivity is expanding at a staggering rate. Many industry analysts predict that Internet traffic will increase between 20 and 30 percent each year, and Cisco Visual Networking Index predicts that video traffic will increate to 80% of all IP traffic. Trends contributing to increased bandwidth demand include an increase in …View full post
Make no mistake, if you offer a 1 Gigabit-per-second symmetric broadband service you had better be able to deliver the goods. Even with the average usage per broadband* user today sitting at only around 2Mbps levels, a Gigabit Broadband ‘Killer app” still exists – the broadband speed test! Most new Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks can handle …View full post
2015 may prove to be a decisive year for European Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) investments. Competition within the European telecoms market is intensifying. Consolidation within the cable providers is creating pan-European multi-service giants. Liberty Global leads the charge, with mobile players like Vodafone moving in on the action. With their infrastructures upgraded to DOCSIS 3.0 for many …View full post
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We have all quickly become accustomed to enjoying and relying on the conveniences of technology. My smart phone tells me the weather and the news, keeps me current on email, connected with my friends on social media, and can summon an Uber ride at the click of a button. How did we ever live without being connected 24/7? I was at a dinner over the weekend and a debate ensued over the name of the plant in the table arrangement. My wife whipped out her smartphone, clicked open an App called “Leafsnap” and instantly settled the debate.
While it’s handy to be able to lock my home remotely and view my property remotely from a webcam, broadband connectivity also promises to solve some serious macro issues such as the environmental challenges of urbanization. “Smart Cities” are at the forefront of this evolution. By leveraging emerging information and communications technology (ICT), these cities are seeing population growth attributed to the resulting increase in economic activity, improved transportation efficiency and an overall enhanced quality of life for its citizens. That is, the efficiency gains enable the creation of environmentally friendly mega cities that are capable of safely increasing population density in a sustainable manner. In short, people will flock to these large Smart Cities for high quality jobs, innovation and economic prosperity. …Or will they? While the concept of Smart Cities is highly reliant on greater broadband connectivity, my observation is that as connectivity becomes more pervasive, the less people are drawn to big cities. Hence the Smart City paradox.
What is a Smart City?
There are a number of definitions of a Smart City but they typically involve 6 main components:
- Economic Development
- A Sustainable Improved Environment
- Education Infrastructure Modernization
- Quality of Life (creative culture, safety, security, efficiency)
A combination of factors led to the concept of Smart Cities which foresees the implementation of Gigabit broadband connectivity as a solution to many of the current urban problems. This would be achieved by increasing economic activity – thereby reducing intercity poverty – a reduction in crime via improved surveillance and faster police response, less traffic as a result of telecommuting and online schooling, and increased reliance on public transportation, which also alleviates concerns over rising levels of greenhouse gases. These mega-cities see the opportunity to leverage emerging information and communications technology (ICT) to address further urbanization growth. All of the productivity gains enable the creation of an environmentally friendly city that is capable of safely increasing its population density in a sustainable manner.
In 2011, Google launched Google Fiber which proved to be a highly successful disruptive event that has spurred the Gigabit broadband race across America. Just like we witness with a CVS going across the street from every Walgreens, the “NFL cities” have been blanketed with Gigabit service announcements and deployments from the Tier 1 Telcos and Multiple Systems Operators (MSOs). Rural Co-ops have been leveraging Federal funds to deploy Fiber-To-The-Premise (FTTP) for years. This leaves the bulk of America at risk of being left behind. These are communities too small for Google Fiber consideration (and the matching Gigabit broadband deployments by the Tier 1s) and too big to be eligible for Federal broadband subsidies. As a result, these communities have been taking matters into their own hands to work with local and regional operators to transform their towns into Gigabit Communities.
These Gigabit Communities range from former textile towns such as Rock Hill, SC to a former cotton community such as Jackson, TN to dairy farms in Northwest Indiana to rural Mississippi. By the end of 2015, over 200 communities across the country will become “Gigabit Communities.” Without Gigabit broadband initiatives, these towns were at risk of losing the next generation to bigger cities. However the launch of Gigabit services in their communities has been the key catalyst for economic growth and development. A FTTH Council study of 14 communities with Gigabit deployed found a direct positive impact of 1.1 points on GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth over similar communities. For those non-economists, GDP growth rate of around 2% is considered flat (like treading water). Communities with a 2-4% GDP growth rate are healthy and robust, so imagine what a 1.1% increase in GDP can mean for a community’s overall economic picture.
While communities enjoy the boost in their local economy, their citizens also see an immediate benefit in their home values. The FTTH Council commissioned a recent study with the University of Colorado at Boulder which found that Gigabit services increases home values by 3.1%. On a $175,000 home, this Gigabit effect increases the homeowner’s equity by nearly $5,500 or about the same as adding a fireplace or half the value of adding a bathroom.
The Smart City Paradox
While a Gigabit services infrastructure is paramount for Smart Cities to gain the necessary efficiencies to increase their population densities for urbanization while reducing environmental impact, Gigabit Communities have become a magnet for high tech workers, their employers and entrepreneurs. It turns out there no longer needs to be a tradeoff between quality of life and proximity to high paying jobs. Gigabit broadband puts it all within reach. As the innovative jet set move to these smaller towns, their suppliers follow along with hotels, restaurants, retail and other industries that seek growth opportunities.
As a result, the more Gigabit infrastructure that is deployed across the country, the more urban dwellers will realize the work/life benefits of living in the “smart” communities outside of the big cities.
Permanent link to this article: http://carrier.adtran.com/the-smart-city-paradox/
The demand for faster Internet connectivity is expanding at a staggering rate. Many industry analysts predict that Internet traffic will increase between 20 and 30 percent each year, and Cisco Visual Networking Index predicts that video traffic will increate to 80% of all IP traffic. Trends contributing to increased bandwidth demand include an increase in the number of connected devices per person and record growth in subscriptions to over-the-top video services, such as Netflix. In addition, the NCTA reports that the cable industry now has more broadband subscribers than video subscribers. With an ever-increasing bandwidth demand, 50 gigabit cities in the US and counting, and tremendous growth in the consumption of over the top video, many operators are looking for ways to reduce OpEx and build an all-fiber, flexible network that will satisfy the growing demand for many years to come.
Automate Service Delivery through APIs
Application Program Interfaces (APIs) provide an interface that can be used by a service provider’s back office systems to control network elements such as CMTSs, DSLAMs, and FTTH aggregation platforms. By selecting aggregation equipment that offers APIs such as REST, Netconf, and YANG, Cable MSOs, telcos, and other operators are able to automate provisioning processes, which reduces the headcount and time required to provision a new subscriber and eliminates problems with service delivery. Most importantly, automation in service delivery moves operators closer to software-defined networking (SDN) where end-users can choose from additional service offerings through an operator-provided portal without the need for a truck roll.
DWDM and NG-PON2 for Scalable Access and Transport Networks
Fiber optic cable has been a part of the service delivery network for decades. However, installing new fiber can be costly, especially in densely-populated areas where it is needed most. Technologies such as Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) allow operators to layer multiple services on top of each other on the same fiber, which increases the capacity of the transport network. In addition, new fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies such as Next Generation Passive Optical Network Stage 2 (NG-PON2) provide scalability in the fiber access network by using Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (TWDM), allowing service providers to deploy a single 10-gigabit access network and add additional networks on other wavelengths as demand increases or to service businesses who desire point-to-point connectivity. By incorporating both DWDM and NG-PON2, operators can consolidate residential and business service delivery networks onto the same fiber without fear of degrading service level agreement (SLA) performance and reduce construction costs. The result is an agile, high-capacity, all-Ethernet service delivery network that will serve operators well for decades to come.
Modular, Upgradeable Access Platforms Eliminate Forklift Upgrades
At a time when capacity requirements on the access and transport networks are increasing faster than upgrades can be performed, many operators want to choose service delivery platforms that can be upgraded without a forklift upgrade as their network evolves. Platforms that are wholly based on a standard Ethernet switch fabric instead of proprietary protocols are aligned better with the technologies used in the rest of the network and are easier to upgrade going forward. Modular access platforms that implement technologies such as NG-PON2, GPON, xDSL, and packet optical transport on a card allow operators to upgrade their networks by purchasing a new card as opposed to a new chassis.
In summary, MSOs, telcos, and other service providers are faced with the challenge of upgrading their networks to satisfy a growing bandwidth demand with an increasing amount of video traffic. For operators to satisfy the capacity requirements of the future, they will need to automate their service delivery processes, leverage their investment in their physical fiber plant with increased capacity, and invest in a service delivery platform that’s based on modular, Ethernet technology that offers the possibility of upgrading to newer access and transport standards without a forklift upgrade. With APIs to automate service delivery, DWDM in the transport network, and NG-PON2 in the access network, service provider networks will be more than capable of providing an excellent experience and additional video content to subscribers for years to come.
Chris Tucker brings over 15 years of telecommunications experience to ADTRAN and currently supports several cable MSO and CLEC customers with ADTRAN’s leading business services products. Prior to joining ADTRAN, Chris served as a solutions engineer for a major DOCSIS cable modem manufacturer where he supported product qualification efforts at many of the top ten US cable MSOs. Chris has also served in several sales engineering and technical business development assignments supporting the introduction of cutting-edge service delivery solutions into the cable, telco, and satellite service provider verticals. Chris holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology from Purdue University.
Permanent link to this article: http://carrier.adtran.com/three-ways-sp-networks-will-change/
Make no mistake, if you offer a 1 Gigabit-per-second symmetric broadband service you had better be able to deliver the goods. Even with the average usage per broadband* user today sitting at only around 2Mbps levels, a Gigabit Broadband ‘Killer app” still exists – the broadband speed test! Most new Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks can handle this widely used application, having the available access capacity to support the burst to Gigabit while supporting average user bandwidth.
While progressive service providers across the U.S. have begun deploying Gigabit broadband service, many of these advanced FTTH networks do not have the dedicated Gigabit links to each home. In fact, many industry analysts were surprised to hear that most larger Gigabit Broadband players are using the fiber sharing GPON technology and not point to point (P2P) Ethernet FTTH technology. The surprise is warranted as P2P, sometimes referred to as Active Ethernet, supports a dedicated fiber and full Gigabit to each user (or at least in the last mile) while GPON supports 2.5Gbps per ‘PON’ port shared by 16 or 32 users to download content (and only half that capacity for uploading files). 64 customer ‘splits’, as they call it, is used as well, but generally only if you are selling lower speed broadband.
The PON connection is currently more than enough to support the typical U.S. home which consumes over 100 times less than a single connection allows. This may even support the steep broadband usage growth curve currently being driven by over-the-top (OTT) services, like Netflix and Hulu. If broadband utilization growth does continue at the yearly rate we have seen for the last 10 years (~40%) it will take 10 years (~47Mbps average peak load) until a 2.5Gbps GPON port can no longer support a Gigabit speed test. The FTTH network could tap out in less than 5 years if an older, less developed GPON platform/network was deployed.
So why is this important? When the next wave of broadband applications—including medical devices, 3D printing, cloud-based gaming, virtual reality, etc.— reach critical mass, the network capacity will surely be tapped out. If service providers don’t prepare their network via upgrades, the life of their fiber assets may be limited.
This lack of development is akin to a highway having extra traffic lanes only part way between major interchanges. This accelerated obsolescence results from the inability to funnel any more than half of the 2.5Gbps per PON traffic into the cloud. Many Gigabit service providers reduce the customer split from 32 to 16 to accommodate higher service rates, but that generally buys you only another couple of years at 40% growth rate before around 100Mbps per user redlines the FTTH GPON platform. Next generation 10G PON technologies will be rolled out in the coming years that will extend the PON exhaustion date twice as far as today’s most robust GPON platforms. That is what 10G versus 2.5G per PON will get you – 1.5-2x the life expectancy. 5 to 10 more years of growth–up until 500Mbps per user on average is consumed during peak times – will exhaust a NGPON2 10G PON port somewhere near 2030. Indeed this likely won’t happen everywhere but is will happen in many places.
Now please realize that we have only been discussing the FTTH service delivery platform sitting in the access or last mile network being impacted. A 1000 or more of these Gigabit services will be supported on a single Next Generation FTTH service delivery platform, pushing each platform to require high performance cloud-facing interfaces supporting near Terabit speeds (Tbps or 1 million Mbps) to effectively transport all the cloud-based applications from a 1000 aggregated Gigabit Broadband users. Just like the FTTH access network, the middle-mile or metro optical networks will need to be highly scalable to support this massive onramp of broadband traffic. Imagine if we only widened a city’s side streets, but never expanded highway interchanges, overpasses, turnpikes and lane count.
Today’s FTTH platforms generally support only a 10Gbps Ethernet connection between the access network and metro network connecting to the cloud. This is just 1% of the Tbps requirement modeled. Most of today’s second mile or metro networks will need a ‘packet optical’ upgrade as Gigabit Broadband continues to ramp. Packet optical allows exponentially more traffic to be added onto a fiber link by using multiple wavelengths of light – as in dozens and dozens – as opposed to just a few and blinks those lights on and off at 10 or even a 100 times faster than the fiber connected to a home or business, as in FTTH.
Note: I am calling a ‘broadband’ user someone with at least the average broadband speed in the U.S. which is about a 10Mbps connection. These people typically use more traffic during peak time gaming, watching YouTube, running their Roku and Apple TV and (perhaps) illegally streaming sports than the average user with a smaller connection to the Internet.
Joyce Wady is the Vice President Client Services of Connect2 Communications, Inc.
Permanent link to this article: http://carrier.adtran.com/prepare-your-network-for-more-than-a-gig/
2015 may prove to be a decisive year for European Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) investments. Competition within the European telecoms market is intensifying. Consolidation within the cable providers is creating pan-European multi-service giants. Liberty Global leads the charge, with mobile players like Vodafone moving in on the action. With their infrastructures upgraded to DOCSIS 3.0 for many years now, these multi-service operators are moving to compete with more sophisticated offerings, over and above the traditional headline speed positioning of old. In the cable world it is clear the game has changed. The new weapon of choice is service bundles, with exclusive TV content being the ammunition. As more operators seek to enter the TV arena, increasing demand for content rights is applying upward pressure on the cost. This is now compounded by disruptive Over the Top (OTT) providers like Netflix, Amazon and Google. Only those service providers with true scale will be able to justify the premiums required to secure exclusive access to the most popular content.
As we reflect on the European FTTH market, we continue to see steady progress, coupled with some remarkable growth spurts in the likes of Russia, Romania and Spain. Unfortunately these bursts in activities are not reflective of activities and investments throughout Europe. Recently we witnessed the celebratory news headlines which applauded the EU28 FTTH subscriptions surpassing the 15 Million mark. While this is indeed a fine milestone, and worthy of celebration, we must temper our jubilance with the reality that this reflects a mere 7 percent of households across the EU28. Closer examination of the trajectories of many EU28 markets currently focused on FTTH, will not see them reach parity with copper connections within the next 20 to 35 years.
It is widely acknowledged by most operators that some of the largest barriers they face with FTTH deployment come from the customer base they are seeking to serve. Service rejection and scheduling delays result in substantial erosion of scale economies, drive costs upward and compound delays. Until recently, technologies which shortened copper loops to deliver higher speed broadband were not deemed by the industry to be sufficient for inclusion within a formal FTTH or FTTB classification. With the bulk of Europe’s reported Fibre connections being FTTB, where copper is used for the final service delivery, recognition of the complimentary benefits that the very latest copper technologies bring to accelerating FTTH deployments is welcomed.
G.fast will permit service providers to embark on a more traditional telecoms technology deployment where the operator is in charge of their deployment schedule, and strong geographical scale economies can be achieved, accelerating deployment times and reducing service delivery costs. Offering speeds which can compete with the strongest cable offerings permits Europe’s operators to elevate themselves above the headline speed marketing campaigns and reinvigorate their campaigns with multi-service bundles enhanced with localised content.
Ironically it seems that the antidote to Europe’s FTTH woes may prove to be a sprinkling of copper.
Ronan Kelly is ADTRAN Chief Technology Officer for the EMEA and APAC regions
Permanent link to this article: http://carrier.adtran.com/is-ftth-fast-enough-for-european-operators/